Wednesday, January 27, 2016

DNA testing to determine Native Ancestry mtDNA A2, B2, C1, D1, and X2a


Does the arrow go in the wrong direction ? Did mankind Originate in Canada ?  

Ani-Shin-Abe : mtDNA

Mitochondrial Eve is defined as the woman who was the matrilineal most recent common ancestor for all living humans. Mitochondrial Eve is generally estimated to have lived around 400,000 years ago. Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor, not the most recent common ancestor.


Schematic illustration of maternal (mtDNA) gene-flow in and out of Beringia, from 25,000 years ago to present.
When studying human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, the results indicate that Indigenous Amerindian haplogroups, including haplogroup X, are part of a single founding east Asian population. It also indicates that the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups and the levels of sequence divergence among linguistically similar groups were the result of multiple preceding migrations from Bering Straits populations.All Indigenous Amerindian mtDNA can be traced back to five haplogroups, ABCD and X.  

More specifically, Indigenous Amerindian mtDNA belongs to sub-haplogroups that are unique to the Americas and not found in Asia or Europe: A2, B2, C1, D1, and X2a (with minor groups C4c, D2, D3, and D4h3). 
This suggests that 95% of Indigenous Amerindian mtDNA is descended from a minimal genetic founding female population, comprising sub-haplogroups A2, B2, C1b, C1c, C1d, and D1. The remaining 5% is composed of the X2a, D2, D3, C4, and D4h3 sub-haplogroups.

X is one of the five mtDNA haplogroups found in Indigenous Amerindian peoples. Unlike the four main American mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C and D), X is not at all strongly associated with east Asia.
Haplogroup X genetic sequences diverged about 20,000 to 30,000 years ago to give two sub-groups, X1 and X2. X2's subclade X2a occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas. 
However, X2a is a major mtDNA subclade in North America, where among the Algonquian peoples (Ojibwe and Chipewa)  it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types. It is also present in lower percentages to the west and south of this area — among theSioux (15%), the Nuu-chah-nulth (11%–13%), the Navajo (7%), and the Yakama(5%). 
Haplogroup X is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe. The predominant theory for sub-haplogroup X2a's appearance in North America is migration along with A, B, C, and D mtDNA groups, from a source in the Altai Mountains of central Asia.
Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome from Paleo-Eskimo remains (3,500 years old) are distinct from modern Amerindians, falling within sub-haplogroup D2a1, a group observed among today's Aleutian Islanders, the Aleuts and Siberian Yupik populations.  This suggests that the colonizers of the far north and subsequently Greenland originated from later coastal populations. Then a genetic exchange in the northern extremes introduced by the Thule people (proto-Inuit) approximately 800–1,000 years ago began. These final Pre-Columbian migrants introduced haplogroups A2a and A2b to the existing Paleo-Eskimo populations of Canada and Greenland, culminating in the modern Inuit.

You can obtain your Y-DNA (male) and mtDNA (female) DNA from FamilyTreeDNA by ordering their Y-DNA12 Kit for $49 then adding the mtDNA for a reduced price......  

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