Monday, January 25, 2016

X2 mtDNA in Galilee Northern Israel and the 12 Tribes


In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The genetic sequences of haplogroup X diverged originally from haplogroup N, and subsequently further diverged about 30,000 years ago to give two sub-groups, X1 and X2.

Sub-group X2 appears to have undergone extensive population expansion and dispersal around the last glacial maximum, about 22,000 years ago. It is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe; and somewhat less strongly present in the rest of Europe. Particular concentrations appear amongst the Israeli Druze community (27%). Subclades X2a and X2g are found in North American Ojibwe.

Druze: The greatest frequency of haplogroup X is observed in the Druze, a minority population in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, as much in X1 (16%) as in X2 (11%). The Druze also have much diversity of X lineages. This pattern of heterogeneous parental origins is consistent with Druze oral tradition. The Galilee Druze represent a population isolate, so their combination of a high frequency and diversity of X signifies a phylogenetic refugium, providing a sample snapshot of the genetic landscape of the Near East prior to the modern age.



Located in Northern Israel are the following 3 Tribes (Current and Ancient areas of X2a MtDNA)

1. Tribe Naphtali
2. Tribe of Zebulun
3. Tribe of Issachar

1. The Tribe of Naphtali: (Hebrew: נַפְתָּלִי, Modern Naftali Tiberian Nap̄tālî ; "My struggle") was one of the Tribes of Israel. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. The Tribe of Naphtali was allocated the eastern side of the Galilee (on the immediate west of the Sea of Galilee), in the areas now known as the Lower Galilee, and Upper Galilee, and was bordered on the west by Asher, in the north by Dan, in the south by Zebulun, and by the Jordan River on the east. (Joshua 19:32-39) The most significant city was Hazor. In this region, bordering the Sea of Galilee, was the highly fertile plain of Gennesaret, characterised by Josephus as the ambition of nature, an earthly paradise,and with the southern portion of the region acting as a natural pass between the highlands of Canaan, several major roads (such as those from Damascus to Tyre and Acre) ran through it. The prosperity this situation brought is seemingly prophesied in the Blessing of Moses, though textual scholars view this as a postdiction, dating the poem to well after the tribe had been established in the land.

2. Tribe of Zebulun: According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Zebulun (alternatively rendered as Zabulon, Zabulin, Zabulun, Zebulon; Hebrew: זְבוּלֻן, Modern Zvulun Tiberian Zəḇûlūn ; "Dwelling; habitation") was one of the Tribes of Israel. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. The territory it was allocated was at the southern end of the Galilee, with its eastern border being the Sea of Galilee, the western border being the Mediterranean Sea, the south being bordered by the Tribe of Issachar, and the north by Asher on the western side and Naphtali on the eastern. (Joshua 19:10-16)

3. Tribe of Issachar: According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Issachar (Hebrew: יִשָּׂשׁכָר, Modern Yissakhar Tiberian Yiśśâḵār) was one of the Tribes of Israel. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. The territory which it was allocated was immediately north of (the western half of) Manasseh, and south of Zebulun and Naphtali, stretching from the Jordan River in the east, to the coast in the west; this region included the fertile Esdraelon plain. (Joshua 19:17-23)

3 comments:

  1. WOW . . . I wonder why nobody seems to want to acknowledge the X2a in the Hopewell Indians of North America? The Bat Creek Stone found in Tennessee (Judah in paleo-hebrew) or legends found in great lakes tribes (also with X2a) who say their ancestors came from the East (by sea). -- My guess is that the known facts about the Hopewell are in perfect alignment with the Book of Mormon story about a group who left Jerusalem around 600 BC and came to America. Just that nobody wants to admit a connection which might be true because it would be too controversial.

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    1. giografx1... I have wondered about the same Book of Mormon connection with the tribes descending from the Hopewell and Adena cultures (and I do tend to believe there is something there).

      However, even with the very specific haplogroup X2a connection (with its highest concentration among the Druze people found to the west and south of the Sea of Galilee), the picture via DNA alone for the Book of Mormon still gets muddy with growing evidence of other cultures (i.e. Solutreans from Europe, ancient Hebrews, maybe even the Phoenecians, etc.) making it to North America in waves. That combined with mtDNA samples of X2a that fall both w/in and w/out the Book of Mormon timeline leaves me to believe that the Jaredites, Lehites, and Mulekites from the Book of Mormon are just some of the Near East/Southern European peoples (read haplogroup X carrying peoples) that made it to the Americas anciently. All of which makes it harder to tease this out via DNA alone.

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