Saturday, January 12, 2013

X2 mtDNA Distribution : Canada and the Galilee

Click image to enlarge.

Maps showing the Distribution and concentrated areas of X2a mtDNA (Maternal DNA Haplogroup) in the Ojibwe of North American and the Galilean Druze in present day Israel : Centred in and around Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario in Canada, and the area between Mt Carmel and the Sea of Galilee in Israel.

Ojibwe (X2a mtDNA) : are among the largest groups of Native Americans–First Nations north of Mexico. They are divided between Canada and the United States. In Canada, they are the second-largest population among First Nations, surpassed only by Cree. In the United States, they had the fourth-largest population among Native American tribes, surpassed only by Navajo, Cherokee and the Lakota. Because many Ojibwe were historically formerly located mainly around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie, they referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux. Ojibwe who were originally located about the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas.

The Ojibwe peoples are a major component group of the Anishinaabe-speaking peoples, a branch of the Algonquian language family which includes the Algonquin, Nipissing, Oji-Cree, Odawa and the Potawatomi. The Ojibwe peoples number over 56,440 in the U.S., living in an area stretching across the northern tier from Michigan west to Montana. Another 77,940 of main-line Ojibwe; 76,760 Saulteaux and 8,770 Mississaugas, in 125 bands, live in Canada, stretching from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia.[citation needed] They are historically known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, sacred birch bark scrolls, use of cowrie shells for trading, cultivation of wild rice, and use of copper arrow points. In 1745 they adopted guns from the British to use to defeat and push the Dakota nation of the Sioux to the south.

Galilean Druze (X2a mtDNA): are centered in the following areas of Northern Israel.
(Population figures and percentage of overall population):

The Galilee
Daliyat al-Karmel (15,000 – 96.9%)
Yirka (14,750 – 98.9%)
Maghar (11,600 – 57.8%)
Beit Jann (10,600 – 99.8%)
Isfiya (8,500 – 80%)
Kisra-Sumei (7,000 – 94.5%)
Julis (5,700 – 100%)
Yanuh-Jat (5,300 – 100%)
Hurfeish (5,250 – 95.8%)
Shefa-'Amr (5,150 – 14.1%)
Peki'in (4,150 – 76.5%)
Sajur (3,700 – 100%)
Abu Sinan (3,450 – 27.6%)
Rameh (2,200 – 30.4%)

In the Golan Heights:
Majdal Shams (9,700 – 99.9%)
Buq'ata (5,900 – 99.8%)
Mas'ade (3,100 – 99.9%)
Ein Qiniyye (1,735 – 98.9%)

The Druze revere the father-in-law of Moses, Jethro. According to the biblical narrative, Jethro joined and assisted the Israelites in the desert during the Exodus, accepted monotheism, but ultimately rejoined his own people. The tomb of Jethro near Tiberias is the most important religious site for the Druze community. The Druze conception of the deity is declared by them to be one of strict and uncompromising Unity. The main Druze doctrine states that God is both transcendent and immanent, in which he is above all attributes but at the same time he is present in all things. In God, there are no attributes distinct from his essence. He is wise, mighty, and just, not by wisdom, might and justice, but by his own essence. God is "the whole of existence", rather than "above existence" or on his throne, which would make him "limited." There is neither "how", "when", nor "where" about him; he is incomprehensible.

Druze citizens are prominent in the Israel Defense Forces and in politics. The bond between Jewish and Druze soldiers is commonly known by the term "a covenant of blood" (Hebrew: ברית דמים, brit damim)

Ojibwe Spiritual beliefs

Image : The Pictorial notation of an Ojibwe music board.

The Ojibwe have a number of spiritual beliefs passed down by oral tradition under the Midewiwin teachings. These include a creation story and a recounting of the origins of ceremonies and rituals. Spiritual beliefs and rituals were very important to the Ojibwe because spirits guided them through life. Birch bark scrolls and petroforms were used to pass along knowledge and information, as well as for ceremonies. Pictographs were also used for ceremonies.

The sweatlodge is still used during important ceremonies about the four directions, when oral history is recounted. Teaching lodges are common today to teach the next generations about the language and ancient ways of the past. The traditional ways, ideas, and teachings are preserved and practiced in such living ceremonies. The Ojbwe crafted the dreamcatcher. They believe that if one is hung above the head of a sleeper, it will catch and trap bad dreams, preventing them from reaching the dreamer. Traditional Ojibwe use dreamcatchers only for children, as they believe that adults should be able to interpret their dreams, good or bad and use them in their lives.

The Origin of the name "Ojibwe" : those who keep records

Name: The autonym for this group of Anishinaabeg is Ojibwe (plural: Ojibweg). This name is commonly anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway." The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States and "Ojibwa" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U.S., more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; the most common explanations for the name derivations are:

1. from ozhibii'iwe (/o/ + /zhibii'/ + /iwe/), meaning "those who keep records [of a Vision]", referring to their form of pictorial writing, and pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites; or

2. from ojibway (/o/ + /ji/ + /bway/), meaning "the spiritual ones", coinciding with the three fires confederacy member nations- the Potawatomi (meaning the fire keepers), the Odawa (meaning the ones who trade). Each of these member nations are named to each have a role in protecting a specific, important part of Anishinaabe language and coinciding culture.

According to the oral history, seven great miigis (radiant/iridescent) beings appeared to the peoples in the Waabanakiing (Land of the Dawn, i.e., Eastern Land) to teach them the mide way of life. One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the peoples in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach, while the one returned into the ocean. The six great miigis beings established doodem (clans) for the peoples in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Baswenaazhi (Echo-maker, i.e., Crane), Aan'aawenh (Pintail Duck), Nooke (Tender, i.e., Bear) and Moozoonsii (Little Moose), then these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being stayed, it would have established the Thunderbird doodem.

Friday, January 11, 2013

Galilean Druze X2 mtDNA

Lineage analysis within the mtDNA X-haplogroup of the Galilee Region is particularly enlightening. It should be noted that the estimated coalescence times for the major mtDNA X subhaplogroups X1 and X2 are 42,900±18,100 and 17,900±2,900 respectively. It is striking that those different lineages (from the same parental haplogroup) whose genetic divergence date back more than ten thousand years would remain so concentrated within such a small geographic region. Mutation rates for the mtDNA coding region, are not consistent with the possibility that this number of different coding region defined lineages within haplogroup X could have resulted from the recent expansion of a monophyletic clade within the past 1000 years. Rather this combination among the Druze, of a large number of lineages, together with a high frequency of the haplogroup in which these lineages are found, suggests descent from an ancestral population, in which the X haplogroup was more abundant than it is in the contemporary Near East, and which reflects the prevailing Near East genetic landscape at that time, antedating the establishment of the Druze religion in 1017 A.C.E. This supports the notion that the Druze represent a refugium of the population genetic structure from the time period prior to the “Dawa”, and also confirms the hypothesis of high endogamy among the Druze. The refugium hypothesis based on mtDNA haplogroup X analysis was corroborated by the finding of high diversity for the Druze mtDNA haplogroups H and K, with the added finding of novel lineages not shared with nearby populations.

Furthermore, the formal rejection of the alternate hypothesis relating to immigration to the region of individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup but with lineages that diverged in antiquity, further strengthens the Druze refugium model. Although, we cannot exclude the possibility that some ratio between non-random migration and colonization did occur during and following the “Dawa” period and generated the differences in haplogroup frequencies among the current Druze subregions, and between the Druze and other populations, this explanation is highly unlikely in face of the demographic modeling results. The overall low migration rate between the Druze and all other nearby populations cannot explain the high diversity and high frequency of X haplogroup lineages in the Galilee region. Low migration rates were also evident between the Galilee Druze and Druze from other subregions. The finding of the enrichment of the NRY haplogroup K among the Galilee Druze with no detection in samples from other subregions, further supports the relative isolation of this region, even among the Druze. Taken together these findings support the hypothesis that the Galilee Druze are a further more isolated subpopulation of the Druze, who in turn represents a refugium of the population genetic architecture of the Near East in antiquity.

Demographic modeling can also provide estimates of divergence times for populations with shared ancestries. The demographic modeling in the current study indicates most recent divergence of the Druze from an ancestral population shared with Egyptians, Ashkenazi Jews, Adygeis and Greeks. The Egyptian shared ancestry is also consistent with Druze oral tradition. The migration rates of the Druze with these populations are exceedingly low, and this can be attributed to endogamy and geographic isolation following divergence. It should be kept in mind however, that the computational algorithms used for the demographic modeling are designed for models involving an ancestral population which split and maintained constant migration rate among the two daughter populations. Such a simplified model does not take into account the effect of shared party migration, and therefore would tend to overestimate the migration rate, and underestimate the divergence time. Therefore the Druze would seem to have an even greater degree of genetic isolation, than indicated by these results of the demographic modeling.

The historical events and time frame for the loss or dilution of haplogroup X individuals is consistent with the population upheavals and patterns of migration that have characterized the Near East during the past two millennia at least. The preservation of this refugium of mtDNA lineage diversity among the Druze, mainly due to genetic isolation may be the result of their location in relatively more defensible mountainous regions, and the practice of conciliation with governing authorities and dissimulation called the “Taqiyya”, or due to other factors which facilitated preservation of societal integrity during periods of demographic and political change in the region.

Conclusions : The findings suggest that the Near East maternal genetic landscape differed substantially in the past from its current structure, and was enriched in diverse lineages of the mtDNA X haplogroup. These findings have been uncovered due to the unique demographic features of the Druze population, and the adjusted sampling method employed in the current study. The combination of a high frequency and diversity of the Druze mtDNA haplogroup X lineages, in a confined geographic region, and the low migration rate with nearby populations make it unlikely that this diversity was imported. It is thus likely that the global diversity of this haplogroup evolved in the Near East and adjacent regions of western Eurasia, during a long incubation period coinciding with and following the most recent out of Africa expansion as dated by mtDNA coalescence simulations[44]. The Druze population of the Galilee represents a contemporary refugium of this past genetic landscape. More ...

Cherokee, Ojibwe and the Phoenicians ? X2A mtDNA

The absence of Haplogroup X in Mongolia and Siberia and a recently proven center of diffusion in Israel (Brown et al. 1998, Malhi and Smith 2002; Smith et al. 1999; Reidla 2003; Shlush et al. 2009) pose problems for the standard account of the peopling of the Americas. DNA Consultants Cherokee-descended customers include seven instances of haplogroup X. David E. Lewis (whose Cherokee name is Wayauwetsi) traces his unmatched X haplotype back to Seyinus, a Cherokee woman of the Wolf Clan born on or near the Qualla Boundary in North Carolina in 1862. Two cases represent descendants (unknown to each other, incidentally) of the Cherokee woman called Polly who was the namesake for the Qualla reservation (the sound p lacking in the Cherokee language and being rendered with qu).

Phoenicians: On the Y chromosome side of Shlush et al.'s study, male haplogroup K was found to have a relatively high frequency of 11% in the Galilee region (2008:2). K (renamed T in the revised YCC nomenclature) has long been suspected to be the genetic signature of the Phoenicians. A TV show by National Geographic appeared about a year ago titled Who Were the Phoenicians?, in which Spencer Wells of the National Genographic Project, unveiled this theory. Without a doubt it was the Phoenicians, whose name among themselves was Cana'ni or KHNAI 'Canaanites', not Phoenikoi 'red paint people' (Aubet 2001:9-12; cf. Oxford Classical Dictionary s.v. "Phoenicians" ), who are referenced by James Adair when he observes that "several old American towns are called Kan?ai," and suggests that the Conoy Indians of Pennsylvania and Maryland were Canaanites and their tribal name a corruption of the word Canaan. The Conoy Indians are the same Indians William Penn around 1700 described as resembling Italians, Jews and Greeks. By about 1735 they had dwindled to a "remnant of a nation, or subdivided tribe, of Indians," according to Adair (1930:56, 67, 68). One of the oldest Cherokee clans is called Red Paint Clan (Ani-wodi).

So do the two subclades of X and other haplogroups represent Old World and New World branches diverging from each other as long ago as 30,000 years, or do the Native American "anomalous" haplotypes come more recently from the same source in the East Mediterranean? DNA Consultants

Ojibwe and the X2a mtDNA Enigma

The North American sub-clade X2a usually has C-T transitions np 16278 and np 16223,with the presence of DdeI sites np 1715 and np 10394.X2b varies from all its sister lineages [X2b-h] in Eurasia and Africa. The Vantage specimen" is the oldest human in North America to test for X2a. It predates the Norse settlement in Newfoundland,Canada. However it does not predate the "possible speculative" arrival of a Phoenician or Carthagian woman with Hg X on board a vessel that could have been accidently blown across the Atlantic Ocean in a storm.

Kemp [2010] identified 7 Jemes individuals from New Mexico,who shared X2a1a1 genes and who probably had an affinity with the Sioux/Cheyenne.With the exception of one Ojibwa sample all of the Hg X specimens analysed by U Perago [2009] have the coding motif 8913-12397-14302.The anomalous Ojibwa did not cluster with any known X2a branches in North America or sister sub-clades in Eurasia.It "could" be another very rare founder.It has been designated assubgroup X2g.Private control region mutations distinguish two internal X2a branches ,which are X2a1 [143-16093] and X2a2 [225-16254C].X2a1 tends to be concentrated in the Great Lakes and Great Plains region X2a2 is less common [X2a1,19; X2a2,3; X2/,1].Some western fringe X2a specimens [eg:Nuu-Chah-Nuth,Yakima] lack characteristic X2a1 and X2a2 mutations [Ibid].

The current North American distribution of X2a tends to be concentrated in the vicinity of the Great Lakes/Great Plains with frequencies as high as 25% among some Algonquian people [eg:Ojibwa] with diminishing clines to the west and south.Frequency estimates range from Sioux ca 15%,Nuu-Chah-Nuth ca 13.5%,Navajo ca 6.5%,and Yakuma ca 4.8% [M Brown,1998].There are a few single or very frequency occurrences of X2a lineages distal to the "Ojibwa core".One X2a individual was identified among the Shuswap in the Caribou country of British Columbia and 5 0f 63 [7.9%] Nuu-Chah-Nuth samples off the west coast of British Columbia are probably X2a [there is not sufficient definitive data to substantiate this premise].The above tend to support the theory that X2a was introduced to North America from NE Siberia and that a number of intermediate Hg X lineages have been lost.A Nonosabasat sample from Newfoundland,eastern Canada,had X2a[10693C,16189C, 16213A,16223T,!6278T].A number of single occurrences have been reported from the Gaspe Peninsula,Quebec Province,but the data has not been sighted.G Horvati [2011] stated that X2a was identified in 3 of 6 MicMac sequences.

The dearth of indigenous mtDNA samples from the Maritime Provines of Canada,Quebec and British Columbia severely detract from endeavours to reconstruct the migration paths of the initial X2a colonists to North America.Consequently there has been a significant degree of speculation about the entry point to North America and the coalescence dates of X2a.Its apparent,current concentration in the Great Lakes/Great Plains region is an anomaly,which can not be confidently reconciled with an Alaskan entry point.This genetic founding lineage was probably introduced to North America from NE Siberia after the glacial era,but the current dispersal pattern of X2a is not in total accord with this supposition."If" the Ojibwa did move from Nova Scotia to the Great Lakes region ca 1400 ADE,the enigma gains in complexity.

M Kujanova [2009] identified three subgroup X2j specimens in North Africa.V Fernandes [2012] noted that X2j shared a mutation at position 12397 with the North American subgroup X2a.She cautioned that the mutation could be a recurrence and that X2j appears to have evolved recently.The rare North American X2g lineage is compatible with the spread of of Hg X from the Near East towards the New Morld as early as the emergence of the X2+225 clade [ibid]. - More ...

Thursday, January 10, 2013

X2 mtDNA from Near East. 20,000 years ago

The relative absence of haplogroup X2 in Asia is one of the major factors causing the current rethinking of the peopling of the Americas. However, the New World haplogroup X2a is as different from any of the Old World X2b, X2c, X2d, X2e, and X2f lineages as they are from each other, indicating an early origin "likely at the very beginning of their expansion and spread from the Near East"

The Solutrean Hypothesis postulates that haplogroup X reached North America with a wave of European migration about 20,000 BP by the Solutreans,a stone-age culture in south-western France and in Spain, by boat around the southern edge of the Arctic ice pack.

In 2008 a team of genetic scientists published the following: "Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models." - Fagundes NJ, Kanitz R, Eckert R, et al. (March 2008). "Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas" Am. J. Hum. Genet. 82 (3): 583–92. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.11.013. PMC 2427228. PMID 18313026.

The Middle Eastern or Canadian origins of X2a mtDNA

Did the maternal Haplogroup X2a originate in the Middle East 20,000 years ago or much much earlier in Canada ?

Soon we will know that the Ojibwe are truly Ani-Shin-Abe. Original and 1st peoples who have existed since the very beginning, in Canada and migrated much much later to Asia and the Middle East.

Distribution maps are worth 1000 words. Looking at the above concentrations it is clear that the areas of Central and North East Canada and the Middle East are connected via the maternal X DNA distribution. In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It has a widespread global distribution but no major regions of distinct localization.

Origin : mtDNA-based chart of possible large human migrations. The genetic sequences of haplogroup X diverged originally from haplogroup N, and subsequently further diverged about 30,000 years ago to give two sub-groups, X1 and X2.

Distribution : Overall haplogroup X accounts for about 2% of the population of Europe, the Near East, and North Africa. Sub-group X1 is much less numerous, and is largely restricted to North and East Africa, and also the Near East. Sub-group X2 appears to have undergone extensive population expansion and dispersal around or soon after the last glacial maximum, about 21,000 years ago. It is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe; and somewhat less strongly present in the rest of Europe. Particular concentrations appear in Georgia (8%), the Orkney Islands (in Scotland), (7%) and amongst the Israeli Druze community (27%). Subclades X2a and X2g are found in North America, but are not present in native South Americans

Druze: The greatest frequency of haplogroup X is observed in the Druze, a minority population in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, as much in X1 (16%) as in X2 (11%). The Druze also have much diversity of X lineages. This pattern of heterogeneous parental origins is consistent with Druze oral tradition. The Galilee Druze represent a population isolate, so their combination of a high frequency and diversity of X signifies a phylogenetic refugium, providing a sample snapshot of the genetic landscape of the Near East prior to the modern age.

North America : Haplogroup X is also one of the five haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Although it occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas, it is a bigger haplogroup in northern North America, where among the Algonquin peoples (Ojibwe) it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types. It is also present in lesser percentages to the west and south of this area—among the Sioux (15%), the Nuu-Chah-Nulth (11%–13%), the Navajo (7%), and the Yakama (5%) - Wikipedia

X2 mtDNA of the Canadian Ojibwe(a) and Israeli Druze(b)

Haplogroup X descends from the N Haplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup X dates to approximately 30,000 years. "Originally found in Europe and thought to be only distributed regionally, the finding of haplogroup X in the Americas startled the human population genetics community." -FTDNA

Recently, it has been discovered that there are two major sub-lineages within haplogroup X, being X1 and X2. This blog will discuss the origins of the X2a Haplogroup which appears predominantly in both North American Ojibwe and Israeli Druze.

Josephte Sai-sai-go-no-Kwe Delamorandiere. "Woman of the falling snow" 1783-1868 confirmed mtDNA Haplogroup X2a Ojibwe, Kilarney Ontario, Canada

Since these 2 distinct areas, the Great Lakes Region of Canada and the Sea of Galilee in Northern Israel are linked via maternal DNA,....

So then, did X mtDNA originate in the Near East (ie: Israel) or did it originate much earlier in the area of Lake Superior in Canada ?

It is likely that the Ojibwe people, the Anishinabe are actually the ancient ancestors to those living in Israel 21,000 years ago.

Galilean Druze and Miss Israel contestant Angelina Duah Fares